Periods or menstruation is a part of the menstrual cycle that happens in every female for every month. It comes for every 28 to 35 days on average. And stays for about 2 to 7 days depending on their body. As it differs from woman to woman. First menstruation in women begins at the age of 10 to 15 known as puberty and continues till the age of 50 to 55. The end-stage is known as menopause. Puberty hits when the sac-like organs called ovaries produce an egg and releases it into the fallopian tube after the maturation. The process of the formation of eggs is known as ovulation. During that time the uterus also creates lining and prepares itself for pregnancy. When the egg is not fertilized it moves into the uterus and sheds in the form of blood along with the uterus lining which is called periods. This cycle is repeated every month. This is called a normal period. Statistics show that 14.2% of women suffer from irregular periods.
Irregular periods are when periods occur in less than 21 days and take more than 35 days. There are various risk factors for irregular periods. Irregular periods have to be detected and treated early. They can cause complications if persisted for a longer time.
Possible Causes for Irregular Periods:
Stress and Anxiety: These two factors are one of the most common reasons for the change in the menstrual pattern.
Extreme changes in diet: During some months we tend to diet or even over eat. When these kinds of extreme changes are brought in your diet, the body takes time to know and adjust to the situation, this can cause delayed or missed periods.
Menopause: When a woman is nearing her menopause stage, i.e., the stage where the menstrual cycle is going to end may experience irregular periods as the body does not produce eggs every single month
Medications: Few medications like birth control have compounds to delay the production of eggs, this can cause delayed periods and even missed periods depending on the body.
These are the few non-complicated reasons why you may experience irregular or missed periods.
Complications for Irregular Periods:
PCOS: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a condition that affects 5 to 10% of the women every year. The female ovaries release female hormones every month to mature the eggs, along with the female sex hormones and tiny amounts of men sex hormones are also released, this helps the eggs to mature and release through the end of the menstrual cycle. Women with PCOS can have high levels of androgen and testosterone. Ovaries are fluid-filled sacs that produce the egg and hold it till it matures. In PCOS cases, the male sex hormones are released in comparatively higher amounts inhibiting the maturation of eggs. These immature eggs stay in the sac and form small ball-like structures called cysts. Hence the name polycystic ovaries. They can be many in number in one sac. PCOS is a hereditary condition, so families which have a history of PCOS are more prone to the condition.
PCOS can be detected by various symptoms like sudden and extreme acne, unexplained hair loss, growth of facial hair and hair growth on chest, weight gain or loss, belly, and back, and if you are a married woman getting pregnant naturally might be difficult. So get necessary Treatment For Pcos before it leads to severe problems.
Endometriosis: This is usually a painful condition. The cells that usually grow inside the uterus which act as lining, are grown outside the uterus. This involves the cells of fallopian tubes, ovaries, and not beyond the pelvis. Endometrial-like tissue that grows outside the uterus thickens every month and also sheds like normal endometrial tissue. But when this tissue sheds, there is no passage for it to pass out through the body. Endometriomas are cyst-like structures that are formed when ovaries are involved. They cause extreme cramps during menstruation.
Symptoms that can be noticed in endometriosis are extreme period cramps (dysmenorrhea), painful intercourse, excessive bleeding, pain associated with bowel movements and urination, and infertility. Among married women, endometriosis is first diagnosed in women with infertility.
Thyroid Complications: Thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland which is responsible for the secretion of various hormones and controlling various body functions. The disorders involved are hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. These abnormal conditions can cause high or low menstruation in women. Sometimes they also result in no periods called amenorrhea.
Cervical Cancer: This type of cancer is recognized as the fourth most common cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases play a major role in the cause of cancer. This causes bleeding during intercourse, you may also notice abnormal or sudden bleeding in between periods.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): This is an infection of the female reproductive organs caused usually by the sexually transmitted bacteria. The signs or symptoms are usually subtle, hence noticing this infection can be difficult. You may experience pain in the pelvic region, abnormal bleeding with a foul smell, and fever.
When to see a Gynaecologist:
It is always advised to visit a best gynaecologist or healthline centre at the earliest as delaying may transform small complications to severe ones. Look out for the signs like:
- Sudden change in the menstrual cycle like getting your periods in less than 22 days or delayed for more than 35 days.
- Abnormal or excessive bleeding than usual.
- Severe period cramps.
- Bleeding in between periods which is usually known as spotting.
These symptoms can not be ignored. Most of the irregular periods are due to lifestyle changes and stress. Following a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and a proper balanced diet can make significant changes in your reproductive health. Getting pregnant with irregular periods is very difficult. It is always better to consult a doctor in case you experience any kind of slightest change. With advancements in the medical field treating most of the complications have become easy. Most of them are treated with medications and healthy changes, while few may require surgeries or other options. Visit the Gynaecologist at the earliest to avoid further complications.